Even in the first half of 20th century, the abortion was low in Slovakia, induced abortions were very exceptional. The cause was held in social and religious norms and also the reproduction regime of those days where at high mortality the high number of births was required for the population in order to survive.
A breakpoint in the development of abortion occurred in Slovakia in 1957 when the possibility of an induced abortion due to social reasons was adopted by the law (until those days, the induced abortion was allowed by the law only due to health reasons). During one year the abortion increased 2.5 times. It was the starting point of the 40-years time period of an increase in abortion, which culminated at the end of 1980s by a significant increase after the liberalization of the abortion law.
Although Slovakia never belonged among countries with the highest abortion in Europe, the abortion development, mainly its trend was not favorable. The cause was held in a good admissibility of abortions guaranteed by the law and supported by the praxis, their social acceptance, lack of modern contraception as well as the whole social climate suppressing the personal responsibility that reappeared also in the sexual behavior of population. During the whole period of high abortion the induced abortions significantly prevailed over miscarriages. The abortion rate culminated in 1988, when nearly 60 thousands abortions were recorded, of which 51 thousands were induced abortions. The total induced abortion rate reached the value almost 1.3 and 35 % of pregnancies were terminated by an induced abortion. Since this year a period of continuous decrease of abortion has started in Slovakia. During 1990s the number of induced abortions decreased by 60 %. Also the decrease in miscarriages was during 1990s faster than in the previous time period. All abortion indicators also sharply diminished. The only indicator, which shows opposite increasing tendency, is the mean age of women at abortion - 29.3 years at the present time.
Abortion continued its decreasing tendency even at the turn of the 20th and 21st century. Since 2001 number of spontaneous abortion is under 5 thousands and approximately 0.11 of spontaneous abortion fell per one woman during her whole reproductive age. During 2000 - 2005 numbers of induced abortions declined from 18 to actual 14.4 thousands. The total induced abortion rate achieved the value 0.35. In comparison to 1988 total induced abortion rate fell by 73 %.From the fall of abortion a positive fact results - the number of pregnancies which end by birth is continuously increasing, despite the decreasing number of the births. Despite a significant decrease in abortion, the situation cannot be evaluated as a favorable. Still nearly one fourth of pregnancies end by abortion. Currently, from 100 terminated pregnancies, nearly 74 end with birth and 27 end due to abortion (of which approximately 20 by induced abortion and 7 by spontaneous abortion).
After 1990, in addition to the decrease of abortion, also changes in its structure occurred. At the beginning of 90s all abortion indicators sharply fell in all age groups. The expansion of the supply of contraception as well as the increase in the users of contraception contributed to this situation. In the group of women aged 20-39 the induced abortion decreased by more than 70 %. As a contrast to the Western Europe, where among the applicants for the induced abortion prevail the childless unmarried women up to 24 years, in our country the situation is exactly opposite. Married women at the age of 25 and over with two and more children prevail among the applicants, similarly as in the past. In 2004 35 % of induced abortions fell on age group of women mentioned above.